Топ-100

Английский язык в сфере профессиональной коммуникации

ОСТАВЬТЕ ЗАЯВКУ (КОНТАКТЫ НИЖЕ), И МЫ ПОМОЖЕМ С РЕШЕНИЕМ И ОТВЕТОМ по ТЕСТу.

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Английский язык в сфере профессиональной коммуникации

Английский язык в сфере профессиональной коммуникации. Помощь с ответами на тесты Росдистант ТГУ. —Вопрос 1 I ......... up smoking last year Выберите один ответ: gave have given —Вопрос 2 There ..... a letter for him on the table. Выберите один ответ: has is are —Вопрос 3 Mary said (that) she ___ eat steak for dinner. Выберите один ответ: will would willing —Вопрос 4 I ..... newspaper every day Выберите один ответ: read am reading reads —Вопрос 5 Your brother .............. tennis very well. Выберите один ответ: play is play plays —Вопрос 6 Mary said (that) she ___ swim. Выберите один ответ: can't couldn't can not —Вопрос 7 If it _________ a comedy, I won't watch the film. Выберите один ответ: doesn't isn't won't / doesn't be isn't / won't be —Вопрос 8 Не Take some sun-block and wear a hat, as it … get very hot in the middle of the day. Выберите один ответ: must can Не could have —Вопрос 9 Please meet me at the train station in ......... hour from now Выберите один ответ: a an the —Вопрос 10 I can’t remember what Jason does at university. He could study geography or… Выберите один ответ: he may not study geology. he might study geology. he must study geology. —Вопрос 11 Ivonne .................... (draw) a picture. Выберите один ответ: were drawwing was drawwing were drawn was drawing —Вопрос 12 If you __________ carefully, you __________ have an accident. Выберите один ответ: will drive / don't drive / aren't will drive / not drive / won't —Вопрос 13 Michael .................... (run). Выберите один ответ: was runing were running were run was running —Вопрос 14 My sister ........... in London. Выберите один ответ: lives live is live —Вопрос 15 I ........ her since last year Выберите один ответ: haven't seen didn't see —Вопрос 16 Mary said (that) she ___ going to go to Long Beach. Выберите один ответ: went was is —Вопрос 17 Mary said (that) she ___ to do her laundry. Выберите один ответ: had has have —Вопрос 18 John .................... (swim) in a pool. Выберите один ответ: was swimming was swiming were swimming were swiming —Вопрос 19 My brother won an award for being ......... best speller in our school Выберите один ответ: a an the —Вопрос 20 I haven't .......... the ferry to Ellis Island Выберите один ответ: taken goed swam —Вопрос 21 They ....... the contract last week Выберите один ответ: have finalised finalised —Вопрос 22 My dog.........................happy. Выберите один ответ: is are am —Вопрос 23 Mary said (that) she ___ to Sydney. Выберите один ответ: had been has been was being —Вопрос 24 Look- someone ....... their handbag in the room Выберите один ответ: left has left —Вопрос 25 Не What ................ ? B: He's an engineer. Выберите один ответ: is your father doing is your father do does your father do Не —Вопрос 26 Where ............ you born? Выберите один ответ: were have are —Вопрос 27 It was snowing last night. It ___________ so cold! Выберите один ответ: touched felt happened —Вопрос 28 He.............tired Выберите один ответ: is are am —Вопрос 29 She .......... unemployed since she left school Выберите один ответ: was not has not been —Вопрос 30 Many writters were .... Shakespeare Выберите один ответ: influence by influenced by influence for influenced for —Вопрос 31 You _________ smoke near children. Выберите один ответ: have to may shouldn't —Вопрос 32 They ..... in circus Выберите один ответ: work works is working —Вопрос 33 I.........................happy. Выберите один ответ: is are am —Вопрос 34 I ....... ........ any famous film director yet. Выберите один ответ: didn't seen haven't seen don't see —Вопрос 35 I _________ ice skate very well. Выберите один ответ: can may must —Вопрос 36 I ___________ sitting down at the moment. Выберите один ответ: am not isdon't don't —Вопрос 37 How long .................. your best friend? Выберите один ответ: do you know did you know have you known —Вопрос 38 If you ___________ to the party, you would have seen me. Выберите один ответ: went have gone had gone —Вопрос 39 Сhoose the correct to this sentence: "I must run faster or I will lose the race." Выберите один ответ: If I must run faster, I will lose the race. If I run faster, I will lose the race. If I run faster, I will win the race. If I don't run faster, I will win the race. —Вопрос 40 I ______ my document before the power went out in the computer lab. Выберите один ответ: had save have saved had saved Не save Задание 1 UNIT 5 SAFETY AT WORK Assignment 1 Read the text “Chemistry Laboratory Safety Rules” and choose an appropriate heading for each passage. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Rules Some rules are NOT made to be broken. That is true of the rules used in a chemistry lab. They are really, truly for your safety and not your humiliation. Read these and follow the recommendations for safe use and disposal of the material. 1 You say, "But it's only water." Even if it is, how clean do you think that glassware really is? Using disposable pipettes? I know lots of people who rinse them and put them back! Learn to use the pipette bulb or automated pipetter. Don't pipette by mouth at home either. Gasoline and kerosene should be obvious, but people get hospitalized or die every year, right? I know someone who used his mouth to start the suction on a waterbed to drain it. Do you know what they put in some waterbed additives? Carbon-14. Mmmm...radiation. He couldn't retch fast enough! The lesson is that even seemingly harmless substances may be dangerous! 2 A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be available for every chemical you use in lab. 3 No sandals, no clothes you love more than life, no contact lenses, and long pants are preferable to shorts or short skirts. Tie long hair back. Wear safety goggles and a lab coat. Even if you aren't clumsy, someone else in the lab probably is. If you take even a few chemistry courses you will probably see people set themselves on fire, spill acid on themselves, others, or notes, splash themselves in the eye, etc. Don't be the bad example to others, remembered for all time for something stupid! 4 And know how to use it! Given that some people (possibly you) will need them, know the locations of the fire blanket, extinguishers, eyewash, and shower. Ask for demonstrations! If the eyewash hasn't been used in a while the discoloration of the water is usually sufficient to inspire use of safety glasses. 5 For many chemicals, if you can smell them then you are exposing yourself to a dose that can harm you! If the safety information says that a chemical should only be used inside a fume hood, then don't use it anywhere else. This isn't cooking class - don't taste your experiments! 6 Some chemicals can be washed down the drain, while others require a different method of disposal. If a chemical can go in the sink, be sure to wash it away rather than risk an unexpected reaction between chemical 'leftovers' later. 7 It's tempting, but oh so dangerous... just don't do it! 8 Don't haphazardly mix chemicals! Pay attention to the order in which chemicals are to be added to each other and do not deviate from the instructions. Even chemicals that mix to produce seemingly safe products should be handled carefully. For example, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide will give you salt water, but the reaction could break your glassware or splash the reactants onto you if you aren't careful! 9 Not after lab, on the assumption that it will be neater. Put data directly in your lab book rather than transcribing from another source (e.g., notebook or lab partner). There are lots of reasons for this, but the practical one is that it is much harder for the data to get lost in your lab book. For some experiments, it may be helpful to take data before lab. No, I'm not telling you to dry-lab or cheat, but being able to project likely data will help you catch bad lab procedure before you are three hours or so into a project. Know what to expect. You should always read the experiment in advance. (http://chemistry.about.com/od/healthsafety/a/aa080104a.htm) A Don't Taste or Sniff Chemicals B Do Not Pipette By Mouth - Never C Don't Casually Dispose of Chemicals Down the Drain D Read the Chemical Safety Information E Don't Eat or Drink in Lab F Dress Appropriately (for chemistry lab, not fashion or the weather) G Don't Play Mad Scientist H Identify the Safety Equipment I Take Data During Lab Assignment 2 Match safety equipment with those in pictures. 1 respiratory mask_________ 6 gloves _________ 2 face mask/gas mask _________ 7 goggles _________ 3 lab coat _________ 8 ear defenders _________ 4 hard hat _________ 9 chemical containers _________ 5 safety sign _________ Assignment 3 Fill in the gaps with the words or word combinations given below. flammable, radiation, No Open Flames, combustible, nonpotable, chemical containers, corrosive, toxic, biohazard, electricity, functional, explosive 1) ___________ materials are usually strong acids or bases. They represent a hazard to your skin, and often to mucous membranes through inhalation of vapors. Pay attention to the proper storage container for these materials. In addition, these materials are reactive. 2) __________ materials are those which can catch fire readily. 3) This is the symbol for ___________ or poisonous materials. 4) This symbol indicates a ___________ hazard. 5) This is the symbol for a ___________, or a material which represents a threat to cellular materials or living organisms. 6) If you see a ___________ sign, this usually implies there is a flammable or combustible material nearby. 7) This sign warns of live ____________. 8) This sign warns of ____________ materials. 9) The Fire Extinguisher sign should mark the position of a ____________ fire extinguisher. 10) The _____________ water sign lets you know the water is not approved for drinking. 11) This symbol accompanies ____________ materials. 12) The hazard label is found on _____________. It indicates health hazard, flammability, and other cautions associated with the chemical. Assignment 4 Match the words from the box with the words below to make right word combinations. Use each word only once. blanket, assistant, coat, sign, extinguisher, rules, supervisor, fumes, equipment, materials 1 lab a) _________ 2 fire d) _________ b) _________ e) _________ c) _________ 3 safety f) __________ 4 toxic i) _________ g) __________ j) _________ h) __________ Assignment 5 Find the synonyms in column B for the words in column A. A B 1 combustible 2 poisonous 3 danger 4 sign 5 drinking a) symbol/label b) oxidizing c) potable d) toxic e) hazard —Вопрос 1 Creating news, getting information about the company in the press or on TV. Выберите один ответ: direct marketing personal selling public relations —Вопрос 2 We ___ new product every season. Выберите один ответ: imagine design think —Вопрос 3 Some companies … services. Выберите один ответ: employ provide send —Вопрос 4 Choose the appropriate response to the offer: “Let me send this fax for you.” Выберите один ответ: My flat number is 25. No, I can’t Thanks – the number is 01245 674 4783. —Вопрос 5 Does he still ___ the IT department? Выберите один ответ: close run jump —Вопрос 6 Arriving at exactly the time that has been arranged. Выберите один ответ: punctual satisfied happy —Вопрос 7 When you set up a company it is a good idea to get financial ___ . Выберите один ответ: loan advice product —Вопрос 8 Choose the appropriate response to the given request: “Can you phone me tomorrow?” Выберите один ответ: No, it’s OK. But thanks. Where do you want to go? Sure. What time? —Вопрос 9 You should buy your new laptop in the ___ . They're selling last year's models very cheaply. Выберите один ответ: sale sell sold —Вопрос 10 A person you know who may be able to help or advise you because of the work they do. Выберите один ответ: contact subordinate director —Вопрос 11 Every manager … for a specific area. Выберите один ответ: produces runs is responsible —Вопрос 12 Choose the appropriate response to the offer: “I could make a copy for you.” Выберите один ответ: Thanks but I don’t really need one. By cash. Thanks, with extra pulp. —Вопрос 13 I need to be sure, that I will be able to ___ this loan. Выберите один ответ: boost worth pay off —Вопрос 14 Не The general conditions in a workplace, including physical conditions (heat, light, noise). Выберите один ответ: status a rule Не working environment —Вопрос 15 Someone who has a lower position that someone else in an organization. Выберите один ответ: director subordinate partner —Вопрос 16 I ___ products for my company. Выберите один ответ: rise profit purchase —Вопрос 17 The market for new cars is ____ about $500 million a year. Выберите один ответ: spending power pay off worth —Вопрос 18 Не They ___ good service at a reasonable rate. Выберите один ответ: provide present Не cut —Вопрос 19 To start a company or organization. Выберите один ответ: to run to set up to get down —Вопрос 20 Someone who starts a company or organization. Выберите один ответ: retailer founder partner —Вопрос 21 TV, radio, newspapers and magazines, cinema Выберите один ответ: personal selling sponsorship deal advertising media —Вопрос 22 The company hopes that its new strategy will give sales a ___ . Выберите один ответ: discount high-earning boost —Вопрос 23 Choose the appropriate response to the given request: “Could you give me some directions?” Выберите один ответ: Where do you want to go? Thanks. No, it’s OK. But thanks. —Вопрос 24 The formal rules for polite behavior in a group of people Выберите один ответ: working environment hierarchy etiquette —Вопрос 25 The ___ should not trade any products that are poor quality. Выберите один ответ: seller warehouse buyer —Вопрос 26 This company … a large quantity of goods. Выберите один ответ: runs manufactures represents —Вопрос 27 We are ___ a 10 per cent discount on all furniture this week. Выберите один ответ: offering sponsoring consuming —Вопрос 28 Complete the request / offer with the appropriate word(s): “Would you like a …?” Выберите один ответ: sandwiches drink phone me tomorrow —Вопрос 29 She … the UK office of this company. Выберите один ответ: does runs produces —Вопрос 30 Companies … people to work for them. Выберите один ответ: employ provide gather —Вопрос 31 What type of company do you work for? Выберите один ответ: It employs 400 people. It makes shoes. It is based in London. —Вопрос 32 My customers know what they want and they don't like to be pressured - so I don't need to use any ___ sell. Выберите один ответ: strong heavy hard —Вопрос 33 Choose the word / phrase to complete the more polite sentence: “… see the report?” Выберите один ответ: Can I Right now I want to I will fire you if I don’t —Вопрос 34 We ___ that our share of the market will be 28 per cent. Выберите один ответ: estimate high-earning debt —Вопрос 35 One of a number of people who owns a business together is a ... . Выберите один ответ: founder retailer partner —Вопрос 36 Не He … his company and sells its products. Выберите один ответ: managing Не represents manufactures —Вопрос 37 ... sells the goods to the general public. Выберите один ответ: analyst owner retailer —Вопрос 38 The rep gave a ten-minute ___ about the new model. Выберите один ответ: flyer special offer sales pitch —Вопрос 39 Yes, it's very popular - in fact it's our ___ selling design. Выберите один ответ: high lead top —Вопрос 40 A financial … is someone who gives advice about financial services Выберите один ответ: accountant manager analyst —Вопрос 1 Choose the right word for the sentence: “Procter and Gamble has a lot of … .” Выберите один ответ: employers employees employee —Вопрос 2 Finish the sentence “The company has 200 …. ” Выберите один ответ: employees. producers. founders. —Вопрос 3 The ABC company was very small and it was not easy for it … . Выберите один ответ: to enter the market to have an owner to save money —Вопрос 4 A person who gives a company advice about something is called … . Выберите один ответ: team leader staff a consultant —Вопрос 5 Choose the right word for the sentence: “Our … increase every year.”: Выберите один ответ: work profits produce —Вопрос 6 Ted Brown is ____ manager Выберите один ответ: sails buy sales goods —Вопрос 7 Choose the right words for the sentence “The project is _________. It cost $600,000 not $500,000”: Выберите один ответ: over budget under budget behind schedule —Вопрос 8 Choose the right word(s) for the sentence “The owner of the restaurant often faces ___________ that can affect the fate of the business”: Выберите один ответ: unexpected costs deadlines management —Вопрос 9 Steve Jobs started with an idea and then his team __________________ it into a product. Выберите один ответ: improved invented developed —Вопрос 10 Choose the right word for the sentence: “Nike is the main … of Adidas. Выберите один ответ: competitor builder manufacturer —Вопрос 11 There are a lot of ways to __________________ your productivity. Выберите один ответ: sell increase give —Вопрос 12 I have a helpful … in the marketing department at IBM. Выберите один ответ: worker contact person —Вопрос 13 It’s necessary to pay for the __________ of your goods. Выберите один ответ: deliverer delivery —Вопрос 14 Choose the right word for the sentence: “Our company is … in France.” Выберите один ответ: manufactured organised based —Вопрос 15 We depend ______ our suppliers to deliver on time. Выберите один ответ: of for on —Вопрос 16 The __________ on the order is 10% off the usual price. Выберите один ответ: total discount charge —Вопрос 17 We have a large ______ of 500 in the factory. Выберите один ответ: employees workforce workers —Вопрос 18 A lot of customers don’t know how to scan __________________. Выберите один ответ: barcodes laser money —Вопрос 19 Choose the right word for the sentence: “Our … increase every year.” Выберите один ответ: challenge seller profits —Вопрос 20 The company employed ____________to help with the design of the product. Выберите один ответ: Specialize Specialists Workers —Вопрос 21 Every big shop has its own … in the internet. Выберите один ответ: website accountant shop assistant —Вопрос 22 We need to buy some more chairs. Please phone our __________. Выберите один ответ: customer maker supplier —Вопрос 23 Choose the right word for the sentence “Barbara was depressed. She __________ her engineering exam last week”: Выберите один ответ: failed passed pass —Вопрос 24 The ______ for the meeting was sent to everyone in advance. Выберите один ответ: minute diary agenda —Вопрос 25 Choose the right word for the sentence: “We … our products in retail outlets in Europe.” Выберите один ответ: produce sell increase —Вопрос 26 They __________________ the cars in a factory in Togliatti. Выберите один ответ: manufacture include invent —Вопрос 27 What does “on time” mean: Выберите один ответ: in schedule behind schedule on schedule —Вопрос 28 He is … the meeting. Выберите один ответ: in on at —Вопрос 29 I’m sorry. Mr. Smith is not at the office. He is at the conference now. Can I ______________? Выберите один ответ: leave a message send regards take a message —Вопрос 30 The Sales department … . Выберите один ответ: hires new employees. sells to customers. buys products for the company. —Вопрос 31 Choose the right word for the sentence: “His business is … .” Выберите один ответ: profit profits profitable —Вопрос 32 Finish the sentence: “We had regular meetings to _________.” Выберите один ответ: agree budget decide problems discuss problems —Вопрос 33 A financial … is someone who analyses the financial markets. Выберите один ответ: accountant manager analyst —Вопрос 34 We usually send the __________ to our customers when we send them the goods. Выберите один ответ: invoice quality quantity —Вопрос 35 I’d like to ________________ an order for some printers. Выберите один ответ: place deliver make —Вопрос 36 We are market ______ in the electronics industry. Выберите один ответ: heads leaders chiefs —Вопрос 37 Finish the sentence: “The last possible date to finish the project is…”: Выберите один ответ: schedule deadline delay —Вопрос 38 We had to use more staff so________ costs were high. Выберите один ответ: employer employee labour —Вопрос 39 We had some __________problems with the equipment. Выберите один ответ: planned unexpected failed —Вопрос 40 What's you ____? - I’m an engineer. Выберите один ответ: name country job Задание1: Подчеркните в предложениях сказуемое, определите время и залог сказуемого (укажите в скобках) и переведите предложения на русский язык: 1. Fire alarms help warn people about fire danger. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Пожарная сигнализация помогает предупредить людей об опасности пожара. 2. Class C fires are effectively controlled by removing the oxygen. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Пожары класса С эффективно контролируются посредством удаления кислорода. 3. Sprinklers and drenches are fixed fire protection installations. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Спринклерный и дренчерный оросители являются фиксированной системой пожарной безопасности. 4. The function of a breathing apparatus is to enable people to work in an atmosphere that doesn’t support life. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Функцией дыхательного аппарата выступает предоставление возможности людям работать в атмосфере, которая не поддерживает жизнь. 5. Class B fires are controlled with application of fire suppressants. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Пожары класса В контролируются путём применения пламегасящих элементов. 6. This fire alarm system meets all the modern requirements. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Эта система пожарной сигнализации соответствует всем современным требованиям. 7. Fire departments are organized in a system of administration, services, training and operations. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Пожарные отделы организованы в системе управления, услуг, обучения и операций. 8. Hazardous materials are usually kept far from a fire source. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Опасные материалы обычно хранятся вдали от источника огня. 9. Members of a fire brigade give first aid to the people who are injured or shocked. . (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Члены пожарной бригады оказывают первую помощь людям, которые ранены или шокированы. 10. The first automatic electric fire alarm was invented in 1890 by Fransis Robbins Upton. (Past Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Первая автоматическая электроустановка пожарной сигнализации была изобретена в 1890 году Фрэнсисом Роббинсоном Аптоном. 11. Commercial smoke detectors are installed in 93% of US homes and 85% of UK homes. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Коммерческие детекторы дыма установлены в 93% американских домов и 85% великобританских домов. 12. In small theatres a safety curtain is not usually required. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) В маленьких театрах предохранительный занавес обычно не требуется. 13. By 1883only about 10 factories in the US were protected by the Parmelee sprinklers. (Past Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) К 1883 году только около 10 заводов в США были защищены разбрызгивателями Пармили. 14. The invention of a fire hydrant is generally credited to Frederick Graff, Chief Engineer of the Philadelphia Water Work in 1800. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Изобретение пожарного гидранта обычно приписывают Фредерику Граффу, главному инженеру «Филадельфия Вотер Ворк» в 1800 году. 15. The modern development of industry has produced many hazardous materials which explode violently on contact with water. (Present Perfect, активный залог - Active Voice) Современное развитие промышленности привело к появлению множества опасных материалов, которые бурно взрываются при контакте с водой. 16. Fire alarms help warn people about fire danger. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Пожарная сигнализация помогает предупредить людей об опасности пожара. 17. Sprinklers and drenches are fixed fire protection installations. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Спринклерный и дренчерный оросители являются фиксированной системой пожарной безопасности. 18. The function of a breathing apparatus is to enable people to work in an atmosphere that doesn’t support life. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Функцией дыхательного аппарата выступает предоставление возможности людям работать в атмосфере, которая не поддерживает жизнь. 19. This fire alarm system meets all the modern requirements. (Present Simple, активный залог - Active Voice) Эта система пожарной сигнализации соответствует всем современным требованиям. 20. Hazardous materials are usually kept far from a fire source. (Present Simple, пассивный залог - Passive Voice) Опасные материалы обычно хранятся вдали от источника огня. Задание 1 Ознакомьтесь с теоретическим материалом по теме «Простые предложения и способы их перевода» Предложение - это сочетание слов, выражающее законченную мысль. Членами предложения называются слова, входящие в состав предложения и отвечающие на какой-либо —Вопрос. Члены предложения делятся на главные и второстепенные. К главным членам предложения относятся подлежащее и сказуемое. К второстепенным членам предложения относятся дополнение, определение и обстоятельства. По своему составу предложения делятся на простые и сложные. Простые предложения бывают нераспространенные и распространенные. Нераспространенные простые предложения состоят только из главных членов предложения – подлежащего (1) и сказуемого (2): The car (1) stopped (2) Автомобиль остановился. The sun (1) is shining (2) Солнце светит. В состав распространенного простого предложения входят, кроме главных членов, второстепенные члены (хотя бы один из них) - дополнение, обстоятельство и определение. Они поясняют главные члены предложения: The blue(1) car stopped at the gate(2). Синий автомобиль остановился у ворот. 1. Определение 2. Обстоятельство Поскольку место слова определяет его роль в предложении, то при построении английского предложения следует располагать слова в строго определенном порядке. Для английского повествовательного предложения обычным является следующий порядок слов: 1 2 3 4 Подлежащее Сказуемое Дополнение Обстоятельство The man Человек sent послал a telegram телеграмму yesterday. вчера. He Он read читал the text текст well. хорошо. Обстоятельства места и времени могут стоять и перед подлежащим на нулевом месте, например: 0 1 2 3 4 Обстоятельство Подлежащее Сказуемое Дополнение Обстоятельство Yesterday Вчера he он Read Читал the text текст well. хорошо. Задание 2 Переведите простые предложении на русский язык 1. Fire alarms help warn people about fire danger. 2. Sprinklers and drenches are fixed fire protection installations. 3. This fire alarm system meets all the modern requirements. 4. Hazardous materials are usually kept far from a fire source. 5. The substance will be heated to its ignition point during the experiment. 6. Three men were injured in a massive fire of the 20- storeyed building. 7. New sensitive detectors are recommended for the protection of the high-value equipment. 8. He was recognized as a firesetter. 9. The access to the seat of the fire was hindered by the collapse of the walls and the roof. 10. Firemen of the 19th century were called Johnies. 11. The first automatic electric fire alarm was invented in 1890 by Fransis Robbins Upton. 12. Commercial smoke detectors are installed in 93% of US homes and 85% of UK homes. 13. In small theatres a safety curtain is not usually required. 14. By 1883only about 10 factories in the US were protected by the Parmelee sprinklers. 15. The invention of a fire hydrant is generally credited to Frederick Graff, Chief Engineer of the Philadelphia Water Work in 1800. 16. Fire departments are organized in a system of administration, services, training and operations. 17. Class B fires are controlled with application of fire suppressants. 18. Class C fires are effectively controlled by removing the oxygen. 19. In the extinguishment of a fire the burning substance has to be cooled below its ignition temperature. 20. At last firemen were allowed to open a building. Алгоритм выполнения заданий Задание 1 Ознакомьтесь с теоретическим материалом по теме «Сложные предложения и способы их перевода» Предложение называется сложным, если в его состав входит более одной пары главных членов предложения (подлежащее+сказуемое). Сложные предложения подразделяются на сложносочиненные и сложноподчиненные. Между предложениями может существовать сочинительная и подчинительная связь. Сочинительная связь используется в тех случаях, когда действия отдельных предложений не находятся в зависимости друг от друга. Союзы, используемые в предложениях с сочинительной связью: And - и Besides – кроме того But – но, а However - однако Or - или Still – и все же, и все-таки While – в то время как Сложноподчиненное предложение состоит из главного предложения и одного или нескольких придаточных, которые поясняют главное. Придаточное предложение может соединяться с главным предложением подчинительными союзами, союзными словами или без союзов. Существует 5 типов придаточных предложений: 1) придаточные подлежащные 2) придаточные предикатные 3) придаточные определительные 4) придаточные дополнительные 5) придаточные обстоятельственные. Придаточные подлежащные стоят перед сказуемым и чаще всего вводятся союзами that, what, что соответствует в русском языке словам то, что. Также придаточные подлежащие могут вводиться союзными словами who - кто, whose - чей, when - когда, why – почему. That the method is too complicated is obvious То, что этот метод слишком сложный, является очевидным. Придаточные предикатные являются смысловой частью сказуемого, стоят после глагола-связки (обычно be) и могут вводиться теми же союзами и союзными словами, что и придаточные подлежащные: The decision was that the similarities and differences should be explored in detail. Было принято решение о том, что сходства и различия должны быть тщательно исследованы. Придаточные определительные всегда стоят справа от определяемого слова, обычно не отделяются запятой и могут вводиться разными союзами и союзными словами – whose, who, why, which, that. The few facts that he mentioned were interesting and important. Те немногие факты, которые он упомянул, были интересными и важными. Придаточные дополнительные стоят после сказуемого, отвечают на —Вопрос что и могут вводиться союзами – that, if, whether, которые соответствуют в русском языке частице ли, а также союзными словами what – то, что, who - кто, whom - кого, whose - чей, which - который, where – где, куда, why- почему, how – как. We did not know that he was responsible for this work. Мы не знали, что он ответственный за эту работу. Придаточные обстоятельственные бывают разных типов – времени, места, причины, уступительные, условные, и поэтому могут вводиться многими союзами: 1) придаточные места: where - где, куда Where there is a will, there is a way. Там, где есть желание, есть и средство. 2) придаточные времени действия: when- когда while – в то время как, before - до того, как, after – после того как till, until – до тех пор как. Problems cannot be solved until they are accurately defined. Проблемы не могут быть решены до тех пор, пока они не будут точны определены. 3) уступительные придаточные: though, although, while – хотя. Although a new method can be used to study these systems we will use the old one. Хотя новый метод может быть использован для изучения этих систем, мы все же будем использовать старый. 4) придаточные цели: that - чтобы, in order to – для того, чтобы. In order not to have interference two different sources were used. Чтобы не было взаимовлияния, использовались два разных источника. 5) придаточные следствия: so that - так, чтобы. They gathered together round the table so that they could review the procedures. Они сели за круглый стол, (так) чтобы обсудить методы. 6) придаточные причины: as - так как, since – поскольку. Since aluminium is light and strong it is used in aircraft industry. Поскольку алюминий легкий и прочный, он используется в авиационной промышленности. 7) придаточные условия: if - если, unless - если… не, as soon as – как только. You will be informed as soon as the drawings are received. Вам сообщат, как только чертежи будут получены. Задание 2 Определите к какому типу сложных предложений относятся следующие предложения (сложносочиненные, сложноподчиненные), переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. The more you study special subjects, the better specialist in the field of fire science you’ll become. 2. Firemen can extinguish a fire with the help of first aid appliances when it is small. 3. The inert gas should be free of oxygen when it is used in fire extinction. 4. When the rate of combustion reaction is very slow only heat energy is evolved during the process. 5. When a gas – air mixture was heated to its ignition point it was dangerous to firemen to enter the burning building without breathing apparatus. 6. In some cases water can be used on electrical fires if electrical equipment is made electrically dead. 7. The fire was burning violently and there was nobody to extinguish it. 8. They have been involved in that crime and now they are to be punished for that. 9. If you explained the child the danger of a fire play he would be safer. 10. An industrial property may catch fire if someone carelessly throws a cigarette into a pile of trash. 11. Firefighter should wait at the entrance until the officer gives the permission to advance. 12. Precautions should be taken while making inspections in the basements or attics where piles of combustible materials can be accumulated. 13. In the first phase the oxygen content in the air is not significantly reduced and the fire produces water vapour, carbon dioxide and other gases. 14. Water is the most common extinguishant because it is cheap and easily available. 15. Hose lines are of little value if they are not advanced to the seat of the fire during the initial attack. Итоговое задание - выполнить перевод текста по специальности. Fireman A fire service is not a career but a profession and a good fireman makes his work also his hobby. It is surprising how little the community knows about the fire service and the work of a fireman. It is not generally understood that the field of knowledge required is far greater than that of almost any other profession and includes mathematics, hydraulics, chemistry, English, building construction, plan drawing, legislation, fire service law, fire alarms, fixed fire protection installations including carbon dioxide, dry powder, sprinkler and chemical extinguishing agents . No longer can a fireman go into a building and use water indiscriminately. The modern development of industry has produced many hazardous materials which explode violently on contact with water. When a man decides he would like to join the fire service he may do so Either as a junior fireman or as a probationary fireman. After an entrance examination and an interview an outline is given about his work including the hazardous duties and the need to deal with dead bodies or people badly injured . A fireman must be able to respond to an alarm from any duty during the day time in 20 seconds which means he has tо be on an appliance and leaving7 the fire station in this time, and at night time from a rest period in 40 seconds. To accept an order without question and to climb a ladder and enter a burning building which is on fire without thought for one's own safety stresses the need for strict discipline and outlines the need for team spirit.